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mercredi 31 octobre 2012

Une de mes recettes préférée

On mange quoi cet hiver ?

La Colline du Colombier (éd. du Rouergue), 32 €.

Petit miracle de saveurs concentrées, l’anchois sale et relève les plats d’un coup de baguette magique : ici le bœuf cru, sauce à l’anchois de La Colline du Colombier, une recette de Michel Troisgros.

jeudi 25 octobre 2012

Le cru et le cuit: a scientific version of Levy Strauss opus

Neandert(h)als: interesting findings in a Science chat

As many of you know, Neandertals or their ancestors appear in Eurasia beginning about 250,000 years ago, while modern humans don't arrive until somewhere around 50,000 years ago--at least according to current evidence.

Neandertals were first discovered in Gibraltar in the 1800s, but researchers didn't know what they were. They only got clued in when specimens were found in the Neander Valley of Germany. Had things turned out differently, they might have been called Gibraltarians instead; but people there say that is just as well.

Comment From Angus  
Would Neanderthals consider it important to have recognizable human traits? Do we believe that it benefits them as a species?

Harold L. Dibble: 
You know, I sometimes wonder why some people argue so strongly that Neandertals have to be considered to be just like us, as if to say otherwise is some kind of insult to them. Considerting our current condition, and our very uncertain future, I tend to think that pushing our brand of humanity on them could be the bigger insult.

Comment From Beth Skwarecki  
What's the current thinking on the Neandertals' diet? Especially how much they hunted vs. ate plant foods. Was their diet likely different from Homo sapiens of the time?

John Speth: 
Hi Beth, a topic dear to my heart! Here I recognize that my views as they are evolving may be more than three standard deviations from the current mean, but here goes anyway. Generally bones are what preserve, big bones are more visible and seemingly of more interest to a lot of people, and reflect a long bias in our own traditions. So since Darwin, and probably long before we have seen big-game hunting as what we as humans are all about and it is what largely drove our evolution. But a close look at modern hunter-gatherers like the Hadza and San (Bushmen) suggests that men do most of their big-game hunting at the time when other foods, gathered mostly by women, are at their peak (baobab, mopane worms, various seeds, nuts and fruit, etc.). Also men's hunting is notoriously unreliable, they fail most of the time, the spend inordinate amounts of time tracking, etc, not a very reliable and effective way of provisioning on a per capita daily basis. Social/political dimensions such as "costly signaling" are now being looked at very closely by behavioral ecologists (same for chimpanzees) and it looks increasingly like male hunting of big game is largely underwritten by women and serves social/political functions first and foremost and provisioning second. In many hunter-gatherers, men would do better in return rates and reliability by doing what women did. There's another entire issue with the nitrogen values in Neanderthals, but I better leave that one alone here. There's also alot of work going on now showing from microfossils in Neanderthal teeth that they were indeed exploiting plant foods. We don't know how much.

Neandertals and modern humans shared a common ancestor that probably lived in Africa about 500,000 years ago. But Neandertals evolved from hominins that moved in Europe and Asia, while modern humans from those that stayed in Africa--at least according to the thinking of most researchers.

On the other side of the coin, humans are incredibly adaptable to cold, with the development of brown (shivering) fat, as demonstrated by military studies and the cold tolerance of the hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego.

Is obesity reversible?

mercredi 24 octobre 2012

DHA and human tissues

Images intégrées 1

Chronic inflammation at the heart of cancer

Decrease chronic inflammation with proper nutrition, improve gut flora and avoid all causes of environmental triggers of CI like tobacco, indoor pollutants.

Multivitamins in pill and cancer in man: no effect!

Images intégrées 1
Results of incidence for total, prostate and colo-rectal cancers

Sorry but the mainstream medias are wrong, multivitamins in pill do not reduce mortality... In their paper the authors studied incidence of cancers. Last but not least this study is a RCT!
Images intégrées 2
The difference in men with previous history of cancer is also on incidence of cancers
This work was supported by grants
CA 097193, CA 34944, CA 40360, HL 26490, and
HL 34595 from the NIH and an investigator-initiated
grant from BASF Corporation. Study agents and packaging
were provided by BASF Corporation and Pfizer
(formerly Wyeth, American Home Products, and Lederle)
and study packaging was provided by DSM Nutritional
Products Inc (formerly Roche Vitamins).

lundi 22 octobre 2012

Coffee: Every one could test this accelerator! But only someones respond

"Another possibility is that the colonic response to coffee could be mediated by exorphines. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee contain exorphines that can bind to opiate receptors. Opiate receptors, both in the brain
and within the gut wall, mediate important effects on colonic motility'0; Sun and his colleages" have shown that opiate receptors are necessary for the colonic response to food." (From Brown infra)

I completely agree that coffee is also an adaptogen through other mechanisms than caffeine effects.

High Fructose Corn Syrup in US

The synergistic effect of environmental toxins in autism

vendredi 12 octobre 2012

Metabolic syndrome overview and details

A great sponsorship of Takeda!

Metabolic homeostasis – an overview

In normal physiology, energy intake and utilization is perfectly balanced with the body’s energy needs. This is referred to as metabolic homeostasis. Upon digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract, nutrients are sensed by the intestines, the pancreas and the brain. These organs then relay signals to the muscle, liver, fat and back to the brain to develop a proper coordinated response to achieve metabolic homeostasis, including when to end a meal, when to use the digested energy or when to take it up and store it.

Metabolic homeostasis is largely driven by the actions of hormones and neural activity. The pancreatic islets can sense the level of blood glucose levels. When glucose levels are low, such as during an overnight fast, glucagon is released. This hormone acts on the liver to promote hepatic glucose production so that other organs that rely solely on glucose as an energy source, such as the brain and kidney, have enough immediate energy to function properly.

Immediately after a meal, when blood glucose levels spike higher, the pancreas recognizes this occurrence and releases insulin in response. Insulin then acts primarily on the muscle to take up the dietary glucose and store it as glycogen. It also acts on the liver to take up the glucose, converting it into glycogen in that organ as well, though it can also signal so that glucose is converted into lipids. At the same time, insulin turns off endogenous hepatic glucose production. Insulin also acts on adipose tissue to take up excess glucose (what is not scavenged by the muscles and liver) and signals the cell to convert it into fat so it can be stored as an alternative energy supply in that tissue for future use. Likewise, insulin also inhibits lipolysis in the adipose tissue, ensuring further storage of fats. Fats can also come from the diet, where it is released by the gut in the form of chylomicrons. The chylomicrons are broken down by lipases on the surface of liver, muscle, and adipose cells and the liberated fatty acids are taken up by these organs and contributes to the pool of fats in these organs.

A critical tissue in metabolic regulation is the adipose tissue. In addition to being a key depot for energy storage, it is also a key endocrine organ. It releases a number of signaling hormones (referred to generically as adipokines), including leptin and adiponectin. Leptin acts on many different organs, including the brain via effects on food intake, to regulate whole-body metabolism. As leptin levels rise with increasing adiposity it is generally considered a long-term gauge of overall energy supply and thus is more a chronic effector of metabolism, whereas other hormones, such insulin, CCK, ghrelin, etc, are more acute effectors of metabolism. Another key adipokine is adiponectin, which also acts on many tissues to positively regulate whole-body well being. In addition to metabolic hormones the adipose tissue is also a key source of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines.

Another key player in metabolic homeostasis is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Besides being the site of nutrient absorption, the GI tract also is the source of key hormones that act systemically to promote proper metabolism. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the gut upon a meal and promotes digestion, but also acts on the nervous system to regulate central nutrient sensing as well as satiety. Other gut hormones, such as ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and endocannabinoids (ECs), also are released to regulate satiety via central effects. In addition, the gut also secretes incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), which are hormones that stimulate insulin secretion and the potency of its signaling, inhibit glucagon release, and slow the motility of the GI tract, thus delaying the absorption of nutrients. Incretins can act even before the rise in blood glucose levels, so in a sense they prime the system.

In addition to hormones, the gut also hosts a microbiome of intestinal bacteria. Recent studies have shown the importance of this microbiome in maintaining proper metabolic homeostasis. Likewise, the immune system also plays an important role as nutrients, especially lipids, can regulate the activity of this system and affect its interplay with key metabolic organs and tissues.

Finally the brain plays a key role in maintaining proper metabolic homeostasis – both as an effector and a target of regulation. Satiety is composed of two parts: a homeostatic response, mostly regulated by the hypothalamus and nearby nuclei, that ensures that energy intake equals energy needs; and a hedonic response, mostly mediated by higher brain regions, that regulates mood and the pleasure of eating. The brain can also directly sense nutrient levels and act accordingly on the periphery via autonomic regulation. Part of this latter regulation is mediated by a hormonal relay system involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis that leads to the release of thyroid hormones. These hormones can act directly on cells to increase basal metabolism by regulating gene activity, but also on the brain to increase peripheral metabolism via central relays of the sympathetic nervous system to the brown adipose tissue.

Paleodiet / Paleonutrition en espagnol / in spanish!

jeudi 11 octobre 2012

Do you play a genetic russian roulette when you eat Gluten?

Biased T Cell Receptor Usage Directed against Human Leukocyte Antigen DQ8-Restricted Gliadin Peptides Is Associated with Celiac Disease

 Original Research Article
In Press, Corrected ProofAvailable online 11 October 2012
Sophie E. Broughton, Jan Petersen, Alex Theodossis, Stephen W. Scally, Khai Lee Loh, Allan Thompson, Jeroen van Bergen, Yvonne Kooy-Winkelaar, Kate N. Henderson, Travis Beddoe, Jason A. Tye-Din, Stuart I. Mannering, Anthony W. Purcell, James McCluskey, Robert P. Anderson, Frits Koning, Hugh H. Reid, Jamie Rossjohn

lundi 8 octobre 2012

Love? No

An awesome paper about chemical conditioning of young males in our societies.

On the contrary don't use drugs, you can improve your erectile function by diet changes after stopping tobacco!

Cancer prevention: we can!

The deep gap between the potential of prevention and the meager advances of fundamental science in cancer!

For stroke prevention go raw on fruits and veggies

Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

LM Oude GriepW M M VerschurenD KromhoutM C Ocké and J M Geleijnse
Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is related to a lower risk of stroke. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. We evaluated the associations of raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption independently from each other with 10-year stroke incidence and stroke subtypes in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands.
We used data of 20069 men and women aged 20–65 years and free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline who were enrolled from 1993 to 1997. Diet was assessed using a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for total, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.
During a mean follow-up time of 10.3 years, 233 incident stroke cases were documented. Total and processed fruit and vegetable intake were not related to incident stroke. Total stroke incidence was 30% lower for participants with a high intake of raw fruit and vegetables (Q4: >262g/day; HR: 0.70; 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 0.47–1.03) compared with those with a low intake (Q1: less than or equal to92g/day) and the trend was borderline significant (P for trend=0.07). Raw vegetable intake was significantly inversely associated with ischemic stroke (>27 vs less than or equal to27g/day; HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34–0.73), and raw fruit borderline significantly with hemorrhagic stroke (>120 vs less than or equal to120g/day; HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28–1.01).
High intake of raw fruit and vegetables may protect against stroke. No association was found between processed fruit and vegetable consumption and incident stroke.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 791-799 (July 2011) | doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.36

Results are not so striking for CHD but look at this figure and you will decide by yourself!
" Processing of fruit and vegetables alters their structure and induces significant changes in chemical composition, nutritional value, and bioavailability of bioactive compounds, which may induce different effects on CHD risk. Fruit juices, for example, have a lower content of fiber than raw fruit, but they may be a good source of phytochemicals [9]. Prospective studies that examined intake of citrus fruit juice in relation to risk of CHD [10], and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [11], respectively, found no association. Vegetables are often cooked before consumption, which induces loss of water-soluble and heat-sensitive bioactive compounds [12][13]. On the contrary, processing can enhance the availability of bioactive compounds [14]. It has been shown that heat treatment improves the bioavailability of lycopene from tomatoes [15][16] and carotenoids from carrots [17]. Furthermore, processing could convert folate polyglutamate in vegetables into monoglutamate, which has better bioavailability as well [18][19]. "
BTW I would like to add that raw F&V are far more efficient than processed ones because processing CONCENTRATE the non hydric fraction of F&V and as you will see above the quantities are similar in weignt... So processing F&V is very deleterious even for the prevention of CHD.

Organic/ Bio: who owns them?

The main interest of consumers is to eat fresh local foods...

jeudi 4 octobre 2012

You need to read this statement by canadian government

It's unusual in this blog to emphasize state advice or recos  as generally speaking they are wrong, industry sponsored or old fashioned. This is a good point for Canada!

The myth of genetic obesity

Frankly you think that this epidemy is genetic? You think that it is not a consequence of wealth?