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jeudi 28 janvier 2016

Free radicals

Junk food and your brain

Why do consumers buy organic foods?

The debate around vitamin D

"RCT's not Designed for Public Health

How do we get information to make decisions about public health from randomized controlled trials (RCT's)? Can we? Especially for nutrient trials?

At this point, we have seen so many problems with the design of RCT's that get in the way of making public health decisions, i.e., does the nutrient benefit health? At what levels? What can we do?

Dr. Robert Heaney, our Research Director, has published a paper on the appropriate design of nutrient trials and, most of what we see is definitely not designed properly.

In the trial described below, The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), there are several areas where the information we need is missing:
  • They measured the effect of treatment by dosage treatment group, not by serum level. This will be an ongoing problem with any vitamin D trial. As we have published, there is a 6 fold spread of serum levels at any given dose: for someone taking 2000 IU/day, their level might be anything from 20 ng/ml to 120 ng/ml. A study that only analyzes doses will definitely have weak and incomplete results.
  • The lack of accounting for those who were not compliant, even with the dosage model, greatly confuses the interpretation of the data. When you are supposed to have 10 people and only have 7, the average is the sum divided by 10 vs. the sum divided by 7. A great mistake.
  • The lack of recognition of the public health impact vs. arbitrary statistical significance. If there is a P-value of 0.05, this means that there is a 5% probability that the results were due to chance, or, that you have a 95% probability that it was NOT chance. With the P-value of 0.051, this means that there is a 5.1% probability that the results were due to chance. When you are making a decision for public health, does 0.1% 'matter'? The focus on this arbitrary cutoff point distracts from the important public health findings in this study. Additionally, if a product is safe and inexpensive, like vitamin D supplements, then a higher P-value should be acceptable. There would be no harm caused and it is highly likely that it would help (with only a 5.1% chance that you are wasting your money).
Please note the detail below. We think this analysis was very misleading due to the requirements put on the RCT's, not on the researchers.
Thanks especially to you, our concerned audience, for your attention to health! We always appreciate your attention, your input.
Carole Baggerly 
Director, GrassrootsHealth 
A Public Health Promotion & Research Organization 
Moving Research into Practice NOW!"

Another piece:
"Does vitamin D during pregnancy reduce asthma in early childhood?

Wheezing illnesses begin as early as the first few weeks of life, suggesting that there may be prenatal determinants involved with the genesis of these illnesses. While wheezing and other asthma-like symptoms are common in the preschool ages, it remains difficult to predict which of these preschoolers will have asthma that persists through mid-childhood and onward. 
Dr. Bruce Hollis
Dr. Bruce Hollis, PhD, is one of the researchers responsible for the research behind our Protect our Children NOW! campaign. He has been involved in vitamin D research for 35 years. He is passionate about improving health during pregnancy and early childhood through vitamin D.

An Editorial Says New Study Exhibits "Inconclusive Results"

Hollis was an investigator for The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) which tried to determine whether prenatal vitamin D supplementation could prevent asthma or recurrent wheeze in early childhood. Hollis expected about a 25% reduction in asthma with vitamin D sufficient women (> 30 ng/ml). This randomized controlled trial included 881 pregnant women from 14 weeks gestation. The treatment group received 4400 vitamin D daily, while the control group took a placebo and a prenatal vitamin (400 IU/day of vitamin D). When analyzing by treatment group assignment, the incidence of asthma and recurrent wheezing in children at age 3 was lower by 6.1% among children from the treatment group compared to the control group (24.3% v. 30.4%). This data was said to have a P-value of .051, which is .001 higher than the general definition of "statistical significance." Because of this, JAMA published that the study was "not statistically significant."

"Not statistically significant"?

Let's address the P-value first. The P-value is an index for the strength of the evidence. For this study, a P-value of 0.051 would mean that if you did the exact study again with another group of 881 women, 51 of 1000 of these studies would have found a 6% or greater reduction due to chance. In a different wording, that means you are 94.9% sure it was NOT chance! For some arbitrary reason, in contemporary experimental studies, "statistical significance" is now conventionally set at a P-value of <0 .05.="" 0.1="" 4.9="" 5="" 95="" a="" above="" are="" as="" chance.="" chance="" decision="" div="" does="" due="" for="" have="" health="" is="" it="" making="" matter="" means="" nbsp="" not="" or="" probability="" public="" results="" stated="" that="" the="" there="" this="" to="" was="" were="" when="" you="">
6% Reduction

Next, let's address the 6% reduction. This might not be enough to grab headlines, or to make a change in the standard of care for pregnant women. Should we expect only a 6% reduction if all the women actually were taking the vitamin D? And, gave their children vitamin D? Hollis thinks it would be bigger. There were two things that could account for the lower percentage of reduction. 

The first is conforming to the daily dose. Compliance with the study medication was approximately 70%, as measured by Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). For each participant in the trial, their container of vitamins/placebo recorded the time and date of each opening and closing through integrated micro-circuitry. Unfortunately, non-compliance dilutes any true effect for intent-to-treat analyses, but patients could not be removed from the trial for non-compliance. This non-compliance reduced the vitamin D levels of the treatment group. While the levels did rise, they were not in the recommended range (100 - 150 nmol/L, 40-60 ng/ml ) - but instead averaged 98 nmol/L (39 ng/ml). Hollis speculates that 4,400 IU/day might not be adequate for all pregnant women. 

Next, there is the factor of the children's levels after birth. After birth only 46% were receiving vitamin D from their mother and this was only during the first year of life. The results show that the differences in asthma were significant only within a year of birth. This suggests the early effects of vitamin D through pregnancy do not last for three years.

What about their vitamin D levels?

Of course, the analysis we want to see is the comparison of the incidence of asthma according to the vitamin D levels of the mothers (and infants). When this analysis is completed, we predict that those mothers (and infants) who achieved and maintained 40 ng/ml or higher during pregnancy and the first three years of life would indeed have reduced overall asthma rates.

As this study hits the presses, please ask yourself the question about how to interpret this for public health (not a statistical audience): "If the probability is that there is a 94.9% chance that there is at least a 6% reduction in asthma, shall I see that the prenatal person gets vitamin D? Is it safe (yes), is it inexpensive/available?" From there, please make your best public health choice. Take a look at our disease incidence prevention chart for pregnancy."

Statins and CVD prevention

mercredi 27 janvier 2016

Long Chain W3PUFA and adenocarcinomas

La consommation d'aliments jugés plus naturels diminue-t-elle la consommation de junk Food ?

Il semble dans cette étude que malheureusement il n'y a pas de corrélation inverse entre les deux comportements, manger des aliments sains et manger des produits transformés.

L'alimentation industrielle actuelle et ses conséquences

La question de l'alimentation industrielle et des maladies chroniques est extrêmement complexe. Il n'est pas contestable que l'abondance alimentaire ait amélioré l'espérance de vie en supprimant les épisodes de famine qui sévissait périodiquement en raison des aléas climatiques ou des conflits.
En revanche il n'est pas non plus contestable que le passage de l'alimentation ancestrale à l'alimentation par produit industriel est parallèle à l'augmentation de l'obésité. cette obésité qui par ses conséquences métaboliques et ses caractéristiques particulières d'obésité centrale entraîne un sur risque de maladies cardio-vasculaires de cancer et de maladies auto-immunes.
Réfléchir au pourquoi de l'augmentation du risque de maladies chroniques sous-alimentation industrielle conduit à au moins deux explications simples :
-premièrement l'hypothèse de carence
les aliments industriels sont pauvres en micronutriments en vitamines et en composer phytochimiques. Cette hypothèse de carence n'a jamais été prouvée elle résulte simplement de la constatation de la pauvreté en micro nutriments des aliments industriels qui sont raffinés, thermiquement transformé est souvent longuement conservé
-deuxièmement l'hypothèse toxique ou genotoxique.
Il existe dans les préparations industrielles un certain nombre de molécules organiques qui ont une toxicité chronique en ce sens qu'elles altèrent des métabolismes particuliers ou qu'elles s'avèrent délétères pour le génome. Si il peut s'agir des composé hétéro cyclique issu de la cuisson à haute température, de molécules organiques plus spécifiques comme….
Mais il faut soulever une troisième hypothèse qui est celle des perturbateurs métaboliques
les produits industriels sont habituellement composés de différents nutriments la plupart extrêmement raffinés. Qu'il s'agisse des acides gras des triglycérides ou des sucres rapides la disponibilité rapide et massive de ces molécules à la différence des aliments crus peu transformés  expose l'individu qui ingère ces produits à des perturbations métaboliques comme l'hyper insulinémie en réaction à l'absorption continue de sucres rapides, l'hyperlipémiepostprandial en réaction à l'absorption très rapide et massive de triglycérides, des phénomènes d'addiction liée à la diffusion très rapide dans le cerveau soient de ces produits soient de produits plus complexes comme par exemple les analogues peptidiques des opioides résultant de la digestion du gluten.

Offrez leur de l'eau

Deux études récentes paru dans JAMA mettent en évidence l'efficacité d'une mesure simple pour diminuer l'obésité des adolescents et des étudiants :
Offrez leur de l'eau!
En effet, il apparaît que dans les institutions scolaires il est difficile de recourir à de l'eau pour apaiser sa soif.
En général les alternatives sont des boissons chaudes contenant des adaptogènes comme le thé ou le café, des boissons chaudes contenant du blé et du chocolat et beaucoup de sucre, des boissons froides le plus souvent aromatisé et contenant beaucoup de sucre. Si
Toutes ces boissons sont en général payantes. En revanche l'accès à l'eau simple est beaucoup plus difficile. Offrez leur de l'eau.

vendredi 22 janvier 2016

Meat and the brain

Ketones and your brain

Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  1. Stephen C. Cunnane1,2,3,*
  2. Alexandre Courchesne-Loyer1,3
  3. Valérie St-Pierre1,3
  4. Camille Vandenberghe1,3
  5. Tyler Pierotti1,4
  6. Mélanie Fortier1
  7. Etienne Croteau1and
  8. Christian-Alexandre Castellano1

Article first published online: 14 JAN 2016

DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12999

Article has an altmetric score of 19

Paleo diet and fatty liver

International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview 20 January 2016; doi: 10.1038/ijo.2016.4
This is an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. NPG are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.

Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention

J Otten1,5, C Mellberg1,5, M Ryberg1, S Sandberg1, J Kullberg2, B Lindahl1, C Larsson3, J Hauksson4 and T Olsson1
  1. 1Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
  2. 2Department of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  3. 3Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  4. 4Center for Medical Technology and Radiation Physics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
Correspondence: J Otten, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Medicine, Umeå SE-90185, Sweden. E-mail:
5These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received 28 June 2015; Revised 16 November 2015; Accepted 9 December 2015
Accepted article preview online 20 January 2016

mercredi 13 janvier 2016

Sugar and cancer


Resveratrol and wine: not a matter of concern for prevention of neurodegenerescence

The seek for the Graal in prevention of CVD: apparently no fiber


Are telomeres non extendable?

Transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT rapidly extends telomeres in human cells

  1. Helen M. Blau*,3
  1. *Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Clinical Sciences Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; Falk Cardiovascular Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc., Houston, Texas, USA; and §Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  1. 3Correspondence: Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR 4215, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. E-mail:

samedi 9 janvier 2016

So dietary cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern of overconsumption? Actually? Sure it is new?

That dietary cholesterol is not important
for man would be predicted
from the fact that the biliary output of
cholesterol from the human liver is from
10 to 20 times as much as the daily
amount of cholesterol in any diet of
natural foods. Repeated careful dietary
surveys on large numbers of persons in
whom blood cholesterol was measured
consistently fail to disclose a relationship
between the cholesterol in the diet
and in the serum.19-2' Infants and children,
as well as adults, show this lack of
dependence of serum content upon the
exogenous supply of cholesterol,22 but
this does not mean that the diet is unimportant
in regard to the blood cholesterol.
Controlled experiments on men
clearly show that serum cholesterol
changes in direct relation to a change
in the total amount of fat in the
diet.7 23-25 Both animal and vegetable
fats show this effect and the addition or
removal of cholesterol in the diet does
not change the result. The blood
cholesterol may fall, however, if the diet
is almost exclusively pure fat and is free
of carbohydrate;26 this highly artificial
experiment would seem to have no relevance

to natural situations.
A Keys

They were so slow to understand that it could discredit other advices...

Grassfed and grainfed cattle do have opposite footprint on environment

A tragedy for gov sponsored Dietary Guidelines which went out last thursday and emphasize the need for a green planet...

Energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas emissions for current food consumption patterns and dietary recommendations in the US
Michelle S. Tom
, Paul S. Fischbeck
, Chris T. Hendrickson

This article measures the changes in energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shifting from current US food consumption patterns to three dietary scenarios, which are based, in part, on the 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines (US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services in Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, 7th edn, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 2010). Amidst the current overweight and obesity epidemic in the USA, the Dietary Guidelines provide food and beverage recommendations that are intended to help individuals achieve and maintain healthy weight. The three dietary scenarios we examine include (1) reducing Caloric intake levels to achieve “normal” weight without shifting food mix, (2) switching current food mix to USDA recommended food patterns, without reducing Caloric intake, and (3) reducing Caloric intake levels and shifting current food mix to USDA recommended food patterns, which support healthy weight. This study finds that shifting from the current US diet to dietary Scenario 1 decreases energy use, blue water footprint, and GHG emissions by around 9 %, while shifting to dietary Scenario 2 increases energy use by 43 %, blue water footprint by 16 %, and GHG emissions by 11 %. Shifting to dietary Scenario 3, which accounts for both reduced Caloric intake and a shift to the USDA recommended food mix, increases energy use by 38 %, blue water footprint by 10 %, and GHG emissions by 6 %. These perhaps counterintuitive results are primarily due to USDA recommendations for greater Caloric intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and fish/seafood, which have relatively high resource use and emissions per Calorie.

It is a shame for the french press to publish such a paper on the subject ...!preferred/1/package/652/pub/653/page/6

Carnegie Mellon University press release

vendredi 8 janvier 2016

CVD and fat

Un peu de rationalité

Diabète type 2 le glucose sanguin est élevé ce glucose entraine la glycation des protéines et toute une série de complications alors que le foie produit du glucose et que le cerveau fonctionne aussi aux corps cétoniques, mais il faudrait manger du sucre...
Athérome, il y a une corrélation avec les particules LDL du sang que l'on dénombre en mesurant le cholestérol qu'elles contiennent, le cholestérol est vital pour les membranes de toutes les cellules et il faudrait se priver de cholestérol?

Rational search of causation: the mendelian approach

mardi 5 janvier 2016

One of the most stupid paper on paleo diet

Dysnutrition about fructose

Agrofood industry deceives us as if we were all year at the end of fall before a terrible winter. the full packed products with fructose and saccharose are making us fat by sending the fructose message to our body...

Vitamin K

Simple sugars intake is regulated by a liver hormone

Low fat is only a product from advertising

One comment which is not in keeping with the straightforward conclusion: myristic acid is good for you...
1/ association is weak
2/ overall it is myristic and other FA in their mammary synthesized matrix which lower the MetS score
3/ nothing in the study could back that pure myristic acid or myristic acid in other matrix would have led to the same result
Despite those restrictions this study is another evidence that low fat is a stupid idea because low fat is man made and nutrition is about real food !

samedi 2 janvier 2016

Immunodepression in sport


Immunology and Cell Biology , (22 December 2015) | doi:10.1038/icb.2015.109

Immunological aspects of sport nutrition

Michael Gleeson

Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high-carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low-glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high-dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post exercise may influence immune system status in athletes. In order to maintain robust immunity, athletes need to consume a well-balanced diet that is sufficient to meet their requirements for energy, carbohydrate, protein and micronutrients. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients are well known to be potential causes of immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of some essential minerals including iron and zinc and the vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 are important to maintain a healthy immune function. Vitamin D may be a particular concern as recent studies have emphasised its importance in limiting infection episode incidence and duration in both the general population and in athletes and many individuals exhibit inadequate vitamin D status during the winter months. There is only limited evidence that individual amino acids, β-glucans, herbal extracts and zinc are capable of boosting immunity or reducing infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotics, vitamin D3, bovine colostrum and plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs currently offer the best chance of success, particularly for those individuals who are prone to illness.

You would be better to choose your red meat

Casein and atheroma

A very good question

How murine diet models of atheroma got the result


It is amazing how little evidence exists about prevention of CVD by shifting to omega 6 PUFA

You should read at least the abstract before buying a liter of sunflower or corn oil for cooking or seasoning your food.

In the world of little evidence another observational study:

In this table DPA is the winner:

This table about seafood is impressive:

Eventually a great paper of D. Mozaffarian