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jeudi 28 avril 2016

Masai high fat diet

Siri tarino

Caffeine effects and the reason why you can fall asleep after a cup of black

"The caffeine in coffee works as a stimulant primarily by blocking a neurotransmitter called adenosine. In a normal waking cycle, adenosine gradually accumulates at certain synapses in the brain and in doing so will contribute to increasing drowsiness. But caffeine acts as an adenosine antagonist, blocking the sites to which it binds and preventing it from working — the result is a feeling of increased alertness and energy which begins within a few minutes of consumption and continues for several hours.

However, the body will tend to produce more adenosine to compensate for the fact that adenosine doesn't seem to be working under the influence of caffeine; this means that once the caffeine wears off, increased drowsiness is likely to result. This 'vicious cycle' is responsible for the addictive quality of caffeine, and withdrawal for a heavy caffeine user can be most unpleasant and even medically dangerous.

I am aware of no clear-cut pharmacological reason that caffeine in and of itself should make a person feel sleepy rather than wakeful, but I can think of several murky possibilities:

  • The coffee you are drinking may not be very "strong," and is perhaps weakly brewed with a low caffeine content. Try ordering an Americano with two shots of espresso and drinking it quickly on an empty stomach; if that makes you sleepy, I'd be concerned about your planet of origin! 
  • Your coffee may be heavily sweetened, and the drowsying effects of the associated sugar crash may be stronger than the opposite effects of the caffeine.
  • There is some evidence that stimulants affect persons with ADD/ADHD much differently than others, though this distinction is mainly applied to a family of stimulant drugs which are dissimilar to caffeine, and your reaction to caffeine shouldnot be taken as a marker for such disorders.

Caffeine does seem to affect different people in different ways — but caffeine does not chemically induce drowsiness as a primary effect and would never be used in such a way by a physician, for example, so it is probable that something quite funny is going on if you find that even large doses of caffeine routinely make you sleepy."

"It depends on the time course.  I’d be surprised if somebody would 
drink a cup of coffee then immediately feels sleepy.  But I think it’s perfectly reasonable to feel sleepy a little bit later on because what's happening when you drink the coffee is that caffeine is complicated but its main effect is to block the action of a transmitter called adenosine which is a sort of dampening down a transmitter if you like in the brain.  So, when you block the effect then you feel more awake.  Later on, when the coffee effect wears off after it gets eliminated in every 4 hours or so, so when that's gone, the adenosine is still chugging along there and then that may then switch the other way so you feel more sleepy.  So, I don’t know of a circumstances where you would drink coffee and then suddenly feel sleepy."

Caffeine in beverages

mercredi 27 avril 2016

Is blood glucose useful for health purposes?

Some good sense about p value

Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is a statistical method for testing whether the factor we are talking about has the effect on our observation. For example, a t test or an ANOVA test for comparing the means is a good example of NHST. It probably the most common statistical testing used in HCI.

P-value is a measure of how much evidence we have against the null hypothesis. The most important thing to remember about p-value is that it is used to test hypotheses. It is a measure of how much evidence we have against the null hypothesis, which is the hypothesis of no change or no difference.

jeudi 21 avril 2016

Wonderful Paleo: Tuna and small broad beans

White frozen tuna
Small fresh broad beans
One garlic 
Unfiltered olive oil 
Unrefined Med salt
A pinch of Piment d'Espelette 
(Could be done with very small tender squids)
Wine: domaine Lafage cuvée centenaire 2011 

lundi 18 avril 2016

Good idea, don't buy the stuff you will not eat

The high amount of LA in westernised diets contributes to chronic pain

Proposed mechanisms linking high intake of linoleic acid to chronic pain. (a) Dietary LA can be endogenously converted to pro-nociceptive mediators (e.g. 9-HODE). A small fraction of dietary LA is converted to n-6 AA, the precursor to pro- and anti-nociceptive mediators. High intakes of dietary LA competitively inhibit hepatic conversion of n-3 ALA into EPA and DHA. (b) In circulation, LA and HODE are predominantly esterified in cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid components of lipoproteins. LA and HODE in circulating LDL are delivered to peripheral tissues via LDL receptors and scavenger receptors. (c) High intakes of LA produce tissue-specific increases in LA and AA and reduction in EPA and DHA content of cellular membranes. (d) High intake of dietary LA increases the production of pro-nociceptive mediators (e.g. 9-HODE and PGE2) and reduces the production of anti-nociceptive lipid autacoids (e.g. EpDPEs and EpETEs). (e) These alterations in nociceptive lipid mediators modulate receptors (e.g. TRPV1, E-prostanoid) creating a biochemical susceptibility to develop chronic pain. LA: linoleic acid; ALA: α-linolenic acid; AA: arachidonic acid; EPA: eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA: docosahexaenoic acid; CE: cholesteryl ester; PL: phospholipid; HODE: hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; EpDPE: Epoxy-docosapentaenoic acid GPCR, G-protein coupled receptor; TRPV1: transient receptor potential vanilloid, type 1.
The issue of W3 vs W6 PUFA in the signalling of pain

One must keep in mind that if some fat is reduced in low fat products it is replaced by 
- other fats, id est mainly PUFA of the W6 series 
- carbs mainly simple carbohydrates
It is not simply an issue from the agro industry but also a question of palatability. If you buy a low fat yogurt you will be tempted to sweet it. if you buy a full fat dairy the taste of fat will enough reward your brain.

The high amount of LA in westernised diets contributed to chronic pain

lundi 11 avril 2016

Total cholesterol and mortality;jsessionid=DDAA0E26570929BE2EA1695AA61336AE.f04t01?v=1&t=imvmz2gd&s=ea94bd9873c60f83225918e9122ef1c41cfa41e5

Paleo diet could improve your metabolism and it is published in a paper from the Endocrine Society!

Statins: discontinuation after a previous MI can lead to a MACE or death

Discontinuation of statins

It is a cohort study. But if we take in account that a lot of patients are not good candidates for primary prevention by statins (those who have no CVD prior first statin use) and the fact that we don't know how efficient was the statin treatment in patients who don't discontinue, this paper must be a red alamr for non discontinuation of statins after a first MACE and for at least the 5 next years.

dimanche 10 avril 2016

Cacao, chocolats

Le chocolat est principalement composé de trois éléments nutritionnels.
En premier du sucre. Hors certains très rares chocolats à 100% cacao tous les autres chocolats contiennent du sucre.
Ensuite des graisses issues de la fève de cacao ou bien rajoutées par les industriels puisque la législation évolue en fonction des états et des périodes historiques.
La fève de cacao elle-même avec son contenu en polyphénols, les quelques protéines et autres fibres caractérisant la fève qui a été sélectionnée.