Dietary fibre 2
|From the black pig fed in at least one hectare to the ham we need salt and dry air...|
|Why adding all this stuff? Use pepper or piment d'Espelette like the Basks.|
Forrest plots of pooled treatment effect estimates of analysed clinical outcomes from all included trials (n = 54). AF: atrial fibrillation; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
|Production and interconversion of HDL particles in CNS and plasma. In brain parenchyma, ABCA1 transporter is expressed in neurons and astrocytes where it promotes the efflux of PL and UC to glia-derived apoE, thus leading to the formation of nascent lipoproteins. Moreover, discoidal apoA-I-containing HDL particles may enter the CNS via SR-BI-mediated uptake and other unknown mechanisms. Discoidal particles can further acquire PL and UC via ABCA1 and ABCG1. Maturation of discoidal particles into spherical lipoproteins likely involves the activity of LCAT, CETP, and PLTP, similar to what happens in plasma. Newly generated particles can be finally uptaken by neurons or astrocytes through the binding of apoE to LDLR family receptors. ABCA1: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ABCG1: ATP-binding cassette transporter G1; BBB: blood–brain barrier; CETP: cholesteryl ester transfer protein; CNS: central nervous system; EL: endothelial lipase; HL: hepatic lipase; LDLRs: LDL receptor family receptors; LCAT: lecithin:cholesterol:acyltransferase; PL: phospholipids; PLTP: phospholipid transfer protein; UC: unesterified cholesterol.|
|Major cholesterol and apoE pathways in the CNS. Cholesterol is synthesized de novo in brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglial cells). Efflux of CNS cholesterol through the BBB occurs as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH-C) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-C). 24S-OH-C is produced exclusively in the CNS, 27-OH-C is produced in most organs. Unlike cholesterol, 24-S-OH-C and 27-OH-C can cross the BBB because of the hydroxylated side chains. Primarily astrocytes and microglia secrete HDL-like lipoproteins composed of cholesterol and phospholipids and apoE as the major apoprotein. ApoE is the ligand of these lipoproteins to the receptors of the LDL receptor family such as the LDL-receptor and LRP. Exchange of cholesterol and apos between CNS cells occurs via these lipoproteins. In plasma, 24S-OH-C and 27-OH-C are transported on lipoproteins such as LDL and HDL. De novo cholesterol synthesis in CNS cells can be regulated by the apoE-mediated uptake of lipoproteins via the LDL receptor family. ApoE is produced within the CNS and interacts with Aβ. The availability of cholesterol and of apoE are thought to affect amyloidogenesis and apoE (in particular the isoform apoE4) promoting the formation of amyloid fibrils from soluble Aβ in the CNS. The data for the steady state cholesterol pool have been determined from studies in healthy adults. The flux of cholesterol across the whole body is ~700 mg/day (CHOL INPUT/OUTPUT). The flux across the CNS is only 0.9% of whole body (~12 mg/day). The efflux of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol through the BBB is limited to ~6-7 mg per day [64, 67], the daily influx of 27-hydroxycholesterol into the brain has been estimated to be ~5 mg . Please note that the brain per kg organ contains 10 times more cholesterol than the rest of the body.|
|Overview of hepatic fatty acid metabolism in the postprandial state. Fatty acids enter a pool where they may be partitioned into oxidation (1) or esterification (2) pathways. There are TG storage and secretory pools. Fatty acids liberated from the hydrolysis of TG in the secretory TG pool, or TG particles, may then be partitioned to a storage TG pool (3). TG in the secretory pool is utilised for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production (4) which enters systemic circulation. It remains unclear if fatty acids liberated from the TG pools enter oxidation pathways (dotted line, (5)). Abbreviations: TG, triglyceride; VLDL, very low-density lipoprotein; DNL, de novo lipogenesis; FA, fatty acid; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acids; ApoB, apolipoprotein B; 3OHB, 3-hydroxybutyrate; ER, endoplasmic reticulum.|