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samedi 29 octobre 2011

Depression, inflammation et alimentation

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;67(12):1211-24.

Inflammation, sanitation, and consternation: loss of contact with coevolved, tolerogenic microorganisms and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
CONTEXT: Inflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD), even in individuals who are otherwise medically healthy. Most studies in search of sources for this increased inflammation have focused on factors such as psychosocial stress and obesity that are known to activate inflammatory processes and increase the risk for depression. However, MDD may be so prevalent in the modern world not just because proinflammatory factors are widespread, but also because we have lost contact with previously available sources of anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory signaling.

OBJECTIVE: To examine evidence that disruptions in coevolved relationships with a variety of tolerogenic microorganisms that were previously ubiquitous in soil, food, and the gut, but that are largely missing from industrialized societies, may contribute to increasing rates of MDD in the modern world.

DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE.
STUDY SELECTION: Included were laboratory animal and human studies relevant to immune functioning, the hygiene hypothesis, and major depressive disorder identified via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE searches.
DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were reviewed by all authors, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the contribution of hygiene-related immune variables to major depressive disorder were extracted.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Significant data suggest that a variety of microorganisms (frequently referred to as the "old friends") were tasked by coevolutionary processes withtraining the human immune system to tolerate a wide array of non-threatening but potentially proinflammatory stimuli. Lacking such immune training, vulnerable individuals in the modern world are at significantly increased risk of mounting inappropriate inflammatory attacks on harmless environmental antigens (leading to asthma), benign food contents and commensals in the gut (leading to inflammatory bowel disease), or self-antigens (leading to any of a host of autoimmune diseases). 
Loss of exposure to the old friends may promote MDD by increasing background levels of depressogenic cytokines and may predispose vulnerable individuals in industrialized societies to mount inappropriately aggressive inflammatory responses to psychosocial stressors, again leading to increased rates of depression.

CONCLUSION: Measured exposure to the old friends or their antigens may offer promise for the prevention and treatment of MDD in modern industrialized societies.
And the culprits are:
1/ the refrigerator as too much of a good thing is dangerous
2/ the sterilised industrialised food products

mardi 18 octobre 2011

The Changing Microbial Environment and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders

There is much to be gained from examining human diseases within the expanding framework of Darwinian medicine. This is particularly true of those conditions that change in frequency as populations develop from the human ‘‘environment of evolutionary adaptedness’’ to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. This development entails major changes in lifestyle, leading to reductions in contact with environmental microorganisms and helminths that have evolved a physiologic role as drivers of immunoregulatory circuits. It is suggested that a deficit in immunoregulation in rich countries is contributing not only to increases in
the incidence of allergic disorders but also to increases in other chronic inflammatory conditions that are exacerbated by a failure to terminate inappropriate inflammatory reponses. These include autoimmunity, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers.

vendredi 14 octobre 2011

Paleofood: slow cooking!

Il pétille le Kéfir de fruit

Frais le Kéfir de fruit est délicieux

Radis au beurre cru en entrée

Frisée aillée

Daurade sauvage au sel cuisson douce au four avec un alu en couverture

Daurade sauvage au sel cuisson douce et chair moelleuse

Filet de Daurade 

Filet de Daurade sauvage Méditerrannée et rondelles d'Igname cuits au four

Epinards à la vapeur et beurre cru, on peut aussi les assaisonner avec de l'huile de Coco

Durian congelé à peine décongelé une glace de la nature...

Durian et son noyau

Paleofood: recette d'été/ Paleofood: summer receipe

mardi 11 octobre 2011

Tartare of tuna

Fresh or frozen tuna cut in small cubes, very few natural salt, ground Espelette pepper a delicious slightly spicy pepper, fresh basil, hazel nut oil and on the top slightly roasted sesame seeds.

All should be prepared and mixed just in time before eating on a cold dish!

Piment d'Espelette

Before: tomatoes, fennel and romaine

After: fresh nuts with Muscat de Hambourg...

lundi 3 octobre 2011

Les produits et aliments à Index Glycémique élevé augmentent significativement le risque de cancer du sein

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Apr;126(2):287-94. Epub 2011 Jan 11.

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.


Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China.


Consumption diets of high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may increase the risk of breast cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the associations between dietary GI and GL and risk of breast cancer. We searched the PubMed database for relevant studies through November 2010, with no restrictions. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of dietary GI and GL with breast cancer risk. Summary RRs were calculated using both fixed- and random-effects models. We identified 10 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 15,839 cases and 577,538 participants. The summary RR of breast cancer for the highest GI intake compared with the lowest was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.14), with no evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.72, I (2) = 0%). For GL, the summary RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95-1.15), and substantial heterogeneity was observed (P = 0.02, I (2) = 55.6%). The GI and GL and breast cancer associations did not significantly modified by geographic region, length of follow-up, number of cases, or menopausal status at baseline. Dose-response analysis was not performed due to limited number of eligible studies. There was no evidence of publication bias. In summary, the present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies suggests that high dietary GI is associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. However, there is no significant association between dietary GL and breast cancer risk.

Hypoglycemia a result of chronic ingestion of high GI foods and the neural control of craving

I believe that I cannot be clearer than the end of the summary of this paper:
"These findings demonstrate that circulating glucose modulates neural stimulatory
and inhibitory control over food motivation and suggest that this glucose-linked restraining influence is lost
in obesity. Strategies that temper postprandial reductions in glucose levels might reduce the risk of overeating,
particularly in environments inundated with visual cues of high-calorie foods."

Les produits à index glycémique élevé provoque une perte du contrôle alimentaire

Il est fascinant de constater que grace notamment à l'IRM fonctionnelle ce que nous avons empiriquement constaté chaque jour dans le comportement humain peut être modélisé, mesuré et établi comme preuve. Cet article est de la plus haute importance pour tous ceux et celles qui ne maitrisent pas les index glycémiques et qui constatent avec impuissance leur tendance au "craving"...