vendredi 22 novembre 2019

Evidence that the liver produces ketone bodies

"3.1. Endocrine Regulation

The general principle of hormonal regulation states that anabolic hormones inhibit, and catabolic hormones stimulate ketogenesis []. Insulin, which is the main anabolic hormone, is principally important: in the presence of insulin ketogenesis is strongly inhibited, even when catabolic hormones are also secreted. Insulin acts in two complementary manners: first, it blocks lipolysis in adipocytes; and next, it promotes glucose uptake and oxidation by tissues, which results in elevated succinyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA levels. These intermediates are strong inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body formation in liver and other ketogenic tissues. When insulin levels are low, the catabolic hormones, namely glucagon (secreted by the pancreas during hypoglycemia), as well as cortisol, growth hormone, catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones come into prominence [,]. They all stimulate lipolysis and the release of free fatty acids, as well as fatty acid transport to the liver and skeletal muscles. Increased influx of fatty acids to the liver induces their β-oxidation and subsequent ketogenesis. Among catabolic hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which drive “fight or flight” reactions to stress, are particularly strong activators of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and remain active regardless of insulin levels [,]."


Other circumstances

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The metabolism of ketone bodies: ketogenesis takes place in hepatocyte mitochondria, whereas ketolysis involves utilization of ketone bodies in the mitochondria of peripheral tissues. ACAT1—acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, Ac-CoA—acetyl-CoA, AcAc-CoA—acetoacetyl-CoA, BDH—β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, bHB—β-hydroxybutyrate, CPT1—carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, HMGCL—HMG-CoA lyase, HMGCS2—HMG-CoA synthetase, MCT1—monocarboxylate transporter 1, SCOT—succinyl-CoA:3-ketocid-CoA transferase, TCA—tricarboxylic acid cycle.

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AMPK and mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) respond to nutrient supply and cellular energy status. AMPK stimulates catabolism and ketogenesis through activation of PPARα and PGC-1α. mTORC1 blocks PPARα and induces anabolic processes, such as protein and lipid biosynthesis. The abbreviations are explained in the text.

mardi 19 novembre 2019

Is it a relief? Or a new pace? (Luke 12/19)

Luke 12:19 

19 And I’ll say to myself, “You have plenty of grain laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat, drink and be merry.”’

Keep in mind that Luke didn't add "because we will die TM".

samedi 16 novembre 2019

Ketones help to clear flu virus thank to gamma delta T cells and cooperation with lining cells of bronchi

Les corps cétoniques mais pas les graisses aident à éliminer le virus grippal grâce aux cellules T gamma delta et à la coopération avec les cellules qui tapissent les bronches

"Nous proposons que les cellules T puissent servir de modulateur de la fonctionnalité épithéliale en réponse au régime alimentaire et à la disponibilité des éléments nutritifs, en induisant des modifications de la différenciation des cellules épithéliales et de leur fonction d'adaptation au changement de l'environnement. Exploiter les effets bénéfiques de la diète cétogène par le biais des cellules T peut donc offrir une avenue potentielle jusque-là non reconnue pour la prévention et le traitement de la grippe."

Lisez ce papier et vous ne ferez plus de "High Fat Diet".

Une perspective évolutive suggère que: le régime paléo dans l’éco niche était dicté par les saisons, les pénuries et les événements de chasse ou de récolte. Ces événements peuvent avoir été énormes et avoir favorisé le stockage d'aliments ou tout simplement adaptés à la demande. En conséquence, nous étions habitués à alterner au cours de l’année plusieurs périodes de régimes faibles en glucides, extrêmement faibles en glucides, riches en protéines, parfois riches en graisses et rarement riches en glucides. Il est fort probable que nous n'équilibrions pas notre alimentation avec les différents macronutriments et que nous mangions plutôt les aliments principaux disponibles dans le cadre des aliments de saison ou les résultats de la chasse et de la cueillette de la tribu. Et souvent nous étions en jeûne aléatoire.

Ketones but not fats help to clear flu virus thank to gamma delta T cells and cooperation with lining cells of bronchi

An evolutionary perspective suggests: paleo diet in the econiche was dictated by seasons, shortages and hunting or harvesting events. These events can have been huge and have promoted storing food or just adapted to demand. Consequently, we were used to alternating during the year several periods of low carb, extremely low carb, high protein sometimes high fat, rarely high carb diets. It is highly probable that we didn't balance our diet with the different macronutrients and rather ate the main food available in the setting of seasonal foods or results of hunting and gathering of the tribe. And frequently we were on aleatory fasting.

jeudi 14 novembre 2019

Vitamine E

1/ the best natural source is unfiltered olive oil >20 mg/100 ml
2/ the most affordable is also unfiltered olive oil
3/ Avocados are also great

mercredi 13 novembre 2019

Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) could be prevented and its course probably improved by selenium containing foods

What should you measure in the blood?

Vitamin D
Selenium 37.00 EUR unreimbursed
Glutathione peroxidase 26.00 EUR unreimbursed
T3 et T3 libre 
T4 et T4 libre

Where is selenium?

Mainly in animal foods
You cannot rely on brazil nuts: "Selenium concentration in Brazil nuts can vary by about three orders of magnitude (0.2-512.0 mg/kg) across several regions of
South America (Chang et al., 1995; Secor and Lisk, 1989; Pacheco and Scussel, 2007; Parekh et al., 2008).
The issue with mushrooms is that it could work only if cultured mushrooms for instance Shiitake are enriched in Se:

A trial is on the way, just track the results

This RCT will probably improve the evidence about selenium supplementation which is uncertain:

And be careful about iodine!

Some studies in different countries have shown that increasing IODINE (virtually always in isolation without taking into consideration other nutrients) can lead to THYROIDITIS:

- Greece:

- China:

- Egypt:

- Brazil:

lundi 11 novembre 2019

The raw butter issue in USA

Le concours de l’article le plus stupide sur le paléo continue

The race for the number one place in the list of the worst paper on Paleo diet is still on.
Among other flaws, in his podcast author Philip Vigier demonstrated in this short statement a clear short sighted vision of history, genomics and evidence-based medicine. He used the word idiotic for Paleo diet. Even this word is wrong.

Fermentation process and casein

Casein modifications or degradations  are a very unknown process especially in old cheeses.

vendredi 8 novembre 2019

There is less pollutants in the blood of young people

« We found that older compared with younger adults with morbid obesity had levels of PCBs, OCPs, and PFCs approximately two‐ to fivefold higher at the time of bariatric surgery. More importantly, with rapid weight loss, older adults had greater increases in serum levels of the lipid‐accumulating environmental toxicants PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs. In contrast, PFCs, which bioconcentrate in the serum, kidneys, and liver (2829), showed a completely different response to weight loss. While the older group had higher baseline concentrations, the younger group had a greater increase in the PFC serum levels associated with weight loss. It is important to note that our “older” group was still relatively young, with a mean age of only 47 years. Therefore, they have the prospect, especially after weight loss, of living several more decades with increased exposure to these toxicants. »

lundi 4 novembre 2019

Brain and BMI

Le gras au Paléolithique: de Tautavel (France) à Qesem (Israël)

La moelle osseuse et la graisse constituent une source importante de nourriture et ont attiré l'attention des groupes humains depuis la préhistoire. La consommation de moelle a été associée à une consommation immédiate après l’obtention et l'extraction des tissus mous. Nous présentons ici les preuves les plus anciennes de stockage et de consommation tardive de moelle osseuse à Qesem Cave, en Israël (~ 420 à 200 ka). En utilisant des séries expérimentales contrôlant le temps d'exposition et les paramètres environnementaux, associées à des analyses chimiques, nous avons évalué la préservation de la moelle osseuse. La combinaison de résultats archéologiques et expérimentaux nous a permis d’isoler des marques spécifiques liées à l’élimination de la peau sèche et de déterminer un faible taux de dégradation de la graisse médullaire pouvant aller jusqu’à 9 semaines. C’est la première preuve d’un tel comportement, qui n’avait pas encore été identifié, et qui donne un aperçu de la socio-économie des groupes humains qui vivaient à Qesem et qui pourrait ouvrir la voie à de nouveaux modes d’adaptation humaine du paléolithique.

Bone marrow and grease constitute an important source of nutrition and have attracted the attention of human groups since prehistoric times. Marrow consumption has been linked to immediate consumption following the procurement and removal of soft tissues. Here, we present the earliest evidence for storage and delayed consumption of bone marrow at Qesem Cave, Israel (~420 to 200 ka). By using experimental series controlling exposure time and environmental parameters, combined with chemical analyses, we evaluated bone marrow preservation. The combination of archaeological and experimental results allowed us to isolate specific marks linked to dry skin removal and determine a low rate of marrow fat degradation of up to 9 weeks of exposure. This is the earliest evidence of such previously unidentified behavior, and it offers insights into the socio-economy of the human groups who lived at Qesem and may mark a threshold to new modes of Palaeolithic human adaptation.