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mardi 29 janvier 2013

Le camembert et l'index glycémique

Un camembert contient moins de 0.1g/100g d'hydrates de carbone et des traces de sucres...
C'est donc un aliment parfaitement low carb...
Pourquoi?
Parce que la fermentation a permis de transformer tout le lactose...
Restent les 20g/100g de lipides et les 14g/100g d'acides gras saturés.
C'est une autre histoire.
Les graisses saturées sont elles dangereuses pour la santé?
Nous en reparlerons...

mercredi 23 janvier 2013

Recette paléo: Bone marrow, bouillon, and roquette

1/ Put beautiful long bones in the oven
2/ Prepare a bouillon of bones and some meat with thyme and oregano
3/ take a large bowl and put roquette olive oil, lemon and a small amount of garlic. If you don't like lemon choose a muscat vinegar or Xeres vinegar.
Serve the three together with a Grenache.

Recette paléo: deux pattes aux tomates et courgettes

1/ Choisir un animal à deux pattes élevé en plein air ou sauvage, replacer le foie dans le ventre de l'animal et y ajouter un citron entier. Un poulet mais aussi une canette semi sauvage, une pintade, un faisant, ou bien des pigeons.
2/ Le cuire à basse température dans une cocotte crétoise avec des tomates entières et des courgettes et ajouter du coriandre frais avec les tomates
3/ Découper les morceaux de viande et les servir avec les tomates coupées en morceaux et écraser les courgettes à la fourchette et ajouter un peu d'huile de coco
4/ Servir la purée de courgettes avec quelques tranches de foie autour de la viande mélangée délicatement aux morceaux de tomates agrémentées de coriandre.

dimanche 20 janvier 2013

Heterocyclic amines and colorectal cancer

Cross AJ, Sinha R. Meat-related mutagens/carcinogens in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004; 44(1):44–55. [PubMed Abstract]
Jägerstad M, Skog K. Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutation Research 2005; 574(1–2):156–172. [PubMed Abstract]
Sinha R, Rothman N, Mark SD, et al. Lower levels of urinary 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx) in humans with higher CYP1A2 activity. Carcinogenesis 1995; 16(11):2859–2861. [PubMed Abstract]
Moonen H, Engels L, Kleinjans J, Kok T. The CYP1A2-164A-->C polymorphism (CYP1A2*1F) is associated with the risk for colorectal adenomas in humans. Cancer Letters 2005; 229(1):25–31. [PubMed Abstract]
Butler LM, Duguay Y, Millikan RC, et al. Joint effects between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 genotype and dietary carcinogen exposure on risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2005; 14(7):1626–1632. [PubMed Abstract]
Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K, Nakagama H, Nagao M. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Science 2004; 95(4):290–299. [PubMed Abstract]
Ito N, Hasegawa R, Sano M, et al. A new colon and mammary carcinogen in cooked food, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Carcinogenesis 1991; 12(8):1503–1506. [PubMed Abstract]
Kato T, Ohgaki H, Hasegawa H, et al. Carcinogenicity in rats of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Carcinogenesis 1988; 9(1):71–73. [PubMed Abstract]
Kato T, Migita H, Ohgaki H, et al. Induction of tumors in the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, colon, skin and mammary gland of F344 rats by a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 1989; 10(3):601–603. [PubMed Abstract]
Ohgaki H, Kusama K, Matsukura N, et al. Carcinogenicity in mice of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, from broiled sardine, cooked beef and beef extract. Carcinogenesis 1984; 5(7):921–924. [PubMed Abstract]
Ohgaki H, Hasegawa H, Suenaga M, et al. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma and highly metastatic squamous cell carcinomas in the forestomach of mice by feeding 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 1986; 7(11):1889–1893. [PubMed Abstract]
Shirai T, Sano M, Tamano S, et al. The prostate: A target for carcinogenicity of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) derived from cooked foods. Cancer Research 1997; 57(2):195–198. [PubMed Abstract]
Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 1982. Retrieved September 27, 2010, from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=371&page=1 .

Cross AJ, Ferrucci LM, Risch A, et al. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: An investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association. Cancer Research 2010; 70(6):2406–2414. [PubMed Abstract]
Anderson KE, Sinha R, Kulldorff M, et al. Meat intake and cooking techniques: Associations with pancreatic cancer. Mutation Research 2002; 506–507:225–231. [PubMed Abstract]
Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Cross AJ, Silverman DT, et al. Meat and meat-mutagen intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 2007; 16(12):2664–2675. [PubMed Abstract]
Cross AJ, Peters U, Kirsh VA, et al. A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Research 2005; 65(24):11779–11784. [PubMed Abstract]
Sinha R, Park Y, Graubard BI, et al. Meat and meat-related compounds and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009; 170(9):1165–1177. [PubMed Abstract]
WCRF/AICR Expert Report. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2010, from: http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/ .

Knize MG, Felton JS. Formation and human risk of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed from natural precursors in meat. Nutrition Reviews 2005; 63(5):158–165. [PubMed Abstract]
Kabat GC, Cross AJ, Park Y, et al. Meat intake and meat preparation in relation to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. International Journal of Cancer 2009; 124(10):2430–2435. [PubMed Abstract]
Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(2):211–216. [PubMed Abstract]

Nöthlings U, Yamamoto JF, Wilkens LR, et al. Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2009; 18(7):2098–2106. [PubMed Abstract]
Wu K, Sinha R, Holmes M, et al. Meat mutagens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women—A cohort analysis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2010; 19(5):1301–1310. [PubMed Abstract]
Rohrmann S, Zoller D, Hermann S, Linseisen J. Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort. British Journal of Nutrition 2007; 98(6):1112–1115. [PubMed Abstract]

mercredi 16 janvier 2013

L'eau ressource essentielle


Table 1: Typical values for the volume of water
required to produce common foodstuffs
[37]

Foodstuff                Quantity                   Water consumption

Apple 1 kg 822 litres
Banana 1 kg 790 litres
Beef 1 kg 15,415 litres
Beer 1 × 250ml glass 74 litres
Bio-diesel 1 litre 11,397 litres
Bread 1 kg 1,608 litres
Butter 1 kg 5,553 litres
Cabbage 1 kg 237 litres
Cheese 1 kg 3,178 litres
Chicken meat 1 kg 4,325 litres
Chocolate 1 kg 17,196 litres
Egg 1 196 litres
Milk 1 × 250ml glass 255 litres
Olives 1 kg 3,025 litres
Pasta (dry) 1 kg 1,849 litres
Pizza 1 unit 1,239 litres
Pork 1 kg 5,988 litres
Potatoes 1 kg 287 litres
Rice 1 kg 2,497 litres
Sheep Meat 1 kg 10,412 litres
Tea 1 × 250 ml cup 27 litres
Tomato 1 kg 214 litres
Wine 1 x 250ml glass 109 litres
Cotton 1 @ 250g 2,495 litres

Water required to produce one pound (1 lb.) of:
  • Pork = 576 gallons of water
  • Chicken = 468 gallons of water
  • Soybeans = 206 gallons of water
  • Wheat = 138 gallons of water
  • Corn = 108 gallons of water


Another source:
http://www.janegoodall.ca/project-blue/FoodProductionandWater.html

      • 16,000 - 100,000 litres of water to produce 1 kg of beef
       
      •  3,000 - 4,500 litres of water to produce 1 kg of rice
       
      •  1,350 - 1,500 litres of water to produce 1 kg of wheat
       
      •  990 - 1,000 litres of water to produce 1 litre of milk
       
      •  500 litres of water to produce 1 kg of potatoes
       
      •  140 litres of water to produce 1 cup of coffee
        (most used during the growing, processing and transportation)
       
      •  25 litres of water to produce 1 litre of beer
       
      •  1 litre of water to produce 1 kg of vegetables

Wasting food: a global tragedy

http://www.imeche.org/Libraries/Reports/IMechE_Global_Food_Report.sflb.ashx

You plan to be pregnant? Eat fish and cut sunflower and other W6 veg oils...

You wouls have found this advice previously in this blog...
But this paper is important.

  • ENDOCRINE RESEARCH

Maternal Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status in Late Pregnancy Is Associated with Offspring Body Composition in Childhood

  1. the SWS Study Group
-Author Affiliations
  1. Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit (R.J.M., N.C.H., S.M.R., G.N., H.M.I., K.M.G., E.M.D., C.C.), University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom; Pediatric Endocrinology (R.J.M., J.H.D.), University Hospital Southampton National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom; National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre (K.M.G., P.C.C., C.C.), University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom; and Human Health and Development Academic Unit (K.M.G., P.C.C.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom
  1. Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Professor Cyrus Cooper, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom. E-mail: cc@mrc.soton.ac.uk.

Abstract

Context: Maternal diet during pregnancy has been linked to offspring adiposity, but it is unclear whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status during pregnancy affects offspring body composition.
Objective: We investigated the associations between maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA status at 34 wk gestation and offspring body composition.
Design and Setting: A prospective United Kingdom population-based mother-offspring cohort, the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), was studied.
Participants: A total of 12,583 nonpregnant women were recruited into the SWS, among whom 1987 delivered a baby before December 31, 2003; 293 mother-child pairs had complete measurements of maternal plasma PUFA concentrations in late pregnancy and offspring body composition at both ages 4 and 6 yr.
Main Outcomes Measured: We measured offspring body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, yielding fat mass, lean mass, percentage fat mass, and percentage lean mass. Results are presented as β-coefficients for standardized variables, therefore reflecting the SDchange of the outcome for every 1 SD of the predictor.
Results: After adjustment for maternal factors and child factors including height and duration of breast-feeding, maternal plasma n-6 PUFA concentration positively predicted offspring fat mass at 4 yr (β = 0.14 SD/SD; P = 0.01) and 6 yr (β = 0.11 SD/SD; P = 0.04), but there was no association with offspring lean mass at either age (β = 0.005 SD/SD, P = 0.89; and β = 0.008 SD/SDP = 0.81, respectively). Maternal plasma n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with offspring fat mass at 4 yr (β = 0.057 SD/SD; P = 0.34) or 6 yr (β = 0.069 SD/SD; P = 0.21). Maternal plasma n-3 PUFA status was positively associated with offspring lean mass on univariate analysis (4 yr, β = 0.11, P = 0.06; 6 yr, β = 0.14; P = 0.02); however, this was confounded by a positive association with offspring height.
Conclusions: This observational study suggests that maternal n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy might influence offspring adiposity in childhood.

http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/98/1/299.abstract

dimanche 13 janvier 2013

Early reversal of weight gain is essential to prevent insulin resistance!

"The present study demonstrates for the first time that intentional weight gain within the normal range of subjects who are lean to begin with leads to a significant elevation of basal plasma insulin, C-peptide, and glucose concentrations, whereas after ingested or injected stimuli only insulin levels were raised. An increase of insulin resistance is indicated by HOMA-IR in the basal state, by comparable glucose levels despite higher insulin concentrations following oral stimulation, and by a reduced rate of glucose disposal despite higher insulin concentrations during a glucose clamp at physiological hyperglycemia."

"The present data favor the concept that at this early stage of weight gain changes of secretory products from fat cells, incretin hormones of the intestinal tract, or metabolic factors such as fatty acids have a substantial influence on basal and postprandial hepatic insulin metabolism, whereas increased β-cell function plays a minor role and is primarily restricted to the basal state."


http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/294/3/E568.full.pdf+html

In search of the best whey protein (2)

Another difficult question:
should the best whey protein be blended with another protein?
One answer:

http://www.jacn.org/content/28/4_Supplement_1/464S.full.pdf+html

Whey and weight loss

Whey, the serum or liquid part of milk remaining after separation of the curd, results from the coagulation of milk by acid or proteolytic enzymes. Whey proteins have a relevant nutritional value, and several commercial uses have been developed by the dairy industry.Whey is a satietogenic food. Yes as other proteins but is whey a better satietogenic food than muscle protein either from animals or seafood?
It is not clear ( http://www.jacn.org/content/26/6/704S.full.pdf+html ) ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938407003782 ) but (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003193840800005X) some authors are in keeping with this assertion (Hall WL, Millward DJ, Long SJ, Morgan LM. Casein and whey exert
different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone
secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 2003;89(2):239–48).
So whey should be a major component of weight loss program.
interestingly a peptide from casein collected in the whey fraction during cheese making by acidification of milk is a potent factor of satiety.




[1] Booth DA, Lovette D, Simson PC. Subcutaneous dialysis in the study of
the effects of nutrients on feeding. Physiol Behav 1970;5(10):1201–3.
[2] Barkeling B, Rossner S, Bjorvell H. Effects of a high-protein meal (meat)
and a high-carbohydrate meal (vegetarian) on satiety measured by
automated computerized monitoring of subsequent food intake, motivation
to eat and food preferences. Int J Obes 1990;14(9):743–51.
[3] Geliebter A. Effects of equicaloric loads of protein, fat, and carbohydrate
on food intake in the rat and man. Physiol Behav 1979;22(2):267–73.
[4] Blundell JE, Green S, Burtley VJ. Carbohydrates and human appetite. Am
J Clin Nutr 1994;59:728s–34s [supple].
[5] Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden
VR, et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad
libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in
diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82
(1):41–8.

In search of the best whey protein (1)

What is whey?
It is lactoserum WITHOUT lactose... Id est protein from milk without casein.





The best whey protein is the fresh lactoserum from raw milk grassfed mammals cheese production that you fermented to reduce lactose content.
When this is not available can you get a good whey protein?
It is a very difficult question because of the different methods of separation of whey protein from whole milk.
Secondly even if whey protein do not contain caseins the tolerance of whey protein from different mammals is not the same.
Goat or sheep whey is better tolerated by humans and children.
Unfortunately brand products available are of unknown or cow origin.
Last but not least the techniques of separation do not lead to the same products and the same alteration.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524881/

http://www.medizin.uni-tuebingen.de/transfusionsmedizin/institut/eir/content/2012/8/article.pdf

http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511X-11-67.pdf

http://fst.sagepub.com/content/17/4/293.abstract


An ebook
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=31836&osCsid=ffc27c107151ceda58b560ebd05399db

Trends in whey protein fractionation
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10529-011-0594-8

lundi 7 janvier 2013

Un aliment remarquable

La coopérative d'Isigny produit un excellent beurre cru!
Mais qui a eu la médaille d'or?

dimanche 6 janvier 2013

vendredi 4 janvier 2013

Vegan/végétarien: une opinion


L'être humain est un omnivore. Pour autant, le fait de manger de la viande c'est-à-dire des muscles, des organes ou des produits d'animaux tués n'est pas pratiqué par tous les êtres humains. Les végétariens ne mangent pas d'animaux.

Est-il éthique de manger de la viande ou d'autres organes animaux ?

Pour répondre à cette question les végétariens conviennent d'un ordre éthique croissant des êtres vivants. Les animaux, pour d'autres les poissons sont des êtres vivants trop proches de l'être humain et les tuer leur paraît éthiquement impossible. En revanche les végétaux plus éloignés dans cet ordre croissant de la proximité humaine des êtres vivants, ces végétaux peuvent être mangés même si ils meurent après cueillette.

On ne peut contester que le cheval, la vache, l'agneau, sont très proches des êtres humains. Les tuer pour les manger peut choquer. Néanmoins sur un plan plus fondamental il est difficile de comprendre pourquoi arracher une salade serait différents de tuer un agneau sauf à admettre une pure convention morale c'est à dire une limite arbitraire entre les les êtres vivants.
En effet il s'agit dans les deux cas d'arrêter la vie d'un être vivant pour une prédation immédiate d'ailleurs nécessaire puisque nous ne pouvons pas vivre uniquement d'aliments qui seraient, des fruits des fleurs cueillies, avec parcimonie des feuilles séparées de la plante sans la détruire, du lait et des produits laitiers prélevés dans le surplus de la production destinée à la progéniture des mammifères.



Quelques lectures intéressantes:
http://www.proteinpower.com/drmike/low-carb-diets/are-we-meat-eaters-or-vegetarians-part-iii/