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mardi 30 décembre 2014

Fish

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I know eating farm-raised fish is not as healthy as eating wild-caught fish. But is eating farm-raised fish better than eating no fish at all? Also, how often is it advisable to eat farm-raised fish?
Thanks


Experts have raised concerns about farm raised fish, which in some cases are raised on unnatural diets and crammed into small enclosures that can breed disease, prompting aquaculture operators to rely heavily on antibiotics.
But farming practices are improving, and consumers have a number of healthy and eco-friendly farmed options, said Tim Fitzgerald, a scientist and sustainable seafood expert at the Environmental Defense Fund. He said some merchants set high standards for the farmed salmon and other fish they sell, including the supermarket chains Wegmans and Whole Foods and the producer Verlasso.
A few of the farmed varieties that are produced responsibly are also relatively high in omega 3 fatty acids, the polyunsaturated fats that promote cardiovascular health. They include arctic char, rainbow trout and oysters, he says.
Mr. Fitzgerald recommends eating a mix of farmed and wild seafood. “You paint yourself into a corner if you say you don’t want to eat any farmed fish ever,” he said. “It automatically removes 50 percent of the U.S. seafood supply from your choices.” Some good wild options are Alaskan salmon, Atlantic mackerel and sardines.
From a health perspective, farmed salmon is a good choice, said Roxanne Karimi, a research scientist at the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at Stony Brook University. Dr. Karimi has found that both farmed and wild salmon are high in omega 3’s compared to shrimp, tuna and other fish, and they are generally very low in mercury, a particular concern for pregnant women and young children.
Dr. Karimi said that eating smaller types of fish is best. In her research, she has found that people who eat top predator fish like shark, swordfish and marlin have more mercury in their blood but not necessarily more omega 3’s and selenium — a nutrient that is abundant in fish — than people who eat seafood that is lower on the food chain, like sardines, shellfish, anchovies and herring."
http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/12/18/ask-well-wild-fish-vs-farmed-fish/?rref=health&module=Ribbon&version=context&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Health&pgtype=Blogs
Wild caught fish tastes better.
Is it right? For salmon it is obvious and I tried several times the test in good conditions of reliability.

What about mercury?
By the way the levels of contaminants in wild Alaskan salmon are much lower than if they were from the lower 48 and the populations there are widely recognized as sustainably managed.


Omega3 PUFA?
Roxanne Karimi, research scientist at Stony Brook University, correctly states that from a health perspective, farmed salmon is a good choice. In fact, all salmon - both farmed and wild - contain similar amounts of omega 3 fatty acids.
http://health.clevelandclinic.org/2014/03/fish-faceoff-wild-salmon-vs-farmed-salmon/
http://www.stateofthesalmon.org/hatcheries/

Salmon SpeciesTotal Fat 
(Grams per 3 ounce cooked portion)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Milligrams per 3 ounce cooked portion)Cholesterol 
(Milligrams per 3 ounce cooked portion)
Atlantic, Farmed10.51,80054
King, Wild11.31,70072
Coho, Wild3.790047
Sockeye, Wild5.780054
Chum, Wild4.180081
Pink, Wild4.570055


http://seafoodhealthfacts.org/seafood_choices/salmon.php
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Nutritional content

There are some key nutritional differences between wild and farmed salmon, according to USDA data. A small fillet of wild salmon has 131 fewer calories and half the fat content of the same amount of farmed salmon. And although farmed salmon may have slightly more omega-3 fatty acids, it also has 20.5 percent more saturated fat content — and that’s fat you do not want."

Are there color additives in farmed salmon?
Yes

"Does the salmon have color additives?

Wild salmon get their pink or reddish flesh color through their diet of krill, plankton, and other small organisms. These organisms contain astaxanthin, which is a natural antioxidant in the same family as the beta-carotene found in carrots. Astaxanthin and beta-carotene are classified as carotenes, which are a subclass of carotenoids, and are the pigments responsible for the red, orange, and yellow colors found in foods and nature. Similarly to wild-caught salmon, farm-raised salmon are provided color through their diets by ingesting these same carotenes, primarily astaxanthin and a similar compound canthaxanthin. These compounds, which are added to salmon feed, are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as color additives in food. Currently, most of the astaxanthin and canthaxanthin used in salmon feed is synthetic, although research is being done to improve the process of natural synthesis using microorganisms.
Salmon and trout have the unique ability to retain carotenes in their flesh. A white flesh fish species, such as catfish, does not have this ability and it is not necessary to include these compounds in the diet of farm-raised catfish. In order for farm-raised salmon and trout to be acceptable to consumers, their color must be similar to the wild-caught fish consumers are familiar with. Recently, it is required to label farm-raised salmon as ‘color added’ because of the addition of carotenes in their feed, seafood companies do not add dyes directly to the flesh of the fish."


Health effects of Omega 3 PUFA from fish
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003177.pub2/abstract

Glyphosate Round up

http://people.csail.mit.edu/seneff/glyphosate/Groton_Seneff.pdf

I am not a great fan of pesticides and i think that their effects are of far more importance on human health then the hypothetical effects of GMO.

Interesting whole foods for flu prevention

http://www.outsideonline.com/fitness/nutrition/top-flu-fighting-foods.html?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=facebookpost

Give up sugar in 2015

http://www.rodalenews.com/give-sugar

Gut flora production of gas

http://pubs.rsc.org/En/content/articlelanding/2014/md/c3md00323j

mercredi 24 décembre 2014

Don't worry, You can eat grass if you eat meat...

http://thepaleodiet.com/rebuttal-to-the-proceedings-of-the-national-academy-of-sciences-june-2013-papers-early-edition/

Large quantity of pure caffeine is deadly

http://blogs.fda.gov/fdavoice/index.php/2014/12/tragic-deaths-highlight-the-dangers-of-powdered-pure-caffeine/


CAD and sat fats

http://m.jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2014/12/10/jn.114.203505.full.pdf

Dietary Intake of Saturated Fat Is Not Associated with Risk of Coronary Events or Mortality in Patients with Established Coronary Artery Disease1,2,3

 Authors
  1. Ottar Nygård4,7
  1. 4Departments of Heart Disease
  2. 5Research and Development, and
  3. 6Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
  4. 7Departments of Clinical Science
  5. 8Clinical Medicine, and
  6. 9Global Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
  7. 10The National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway; and
  8. 11Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  1. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: nathalie.genevieve.puaschitz@helse-bergen.no.

Resveratrol a youth fontaine? Only in overfed mice, nothing completely new except the dose

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7117/edsumm/e061116-07.html

Media highlights look like a passport for gluttony on Christmas and new year parties... But nothing of scientific value.

http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/societe/sante/le-vin-rouge-previent-du-vieillissement-c-est-scientifiquement-prouve_1635283.html#xtor=CS3-5076

Supplements? no .

http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704304504574610151045580782

https://www.facebook.com/notes/%C3%A9ric-r-l%C3%A9pine/dont-be-conned-by-the-resveratrol-scam/10152958003723659

mercredi 17 décembre 2014

Potassium

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/09/22/potassium-lowers-stroke-risk.aspx?e_cid=20140922Z2_PRNL_art_2&utm_source=prmrnl&utm_medium=email&utm_content=art2&utm_campaign=20140922Z2&et_cid=DM56501&et_rid=665555795

Effects of Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Mode on Arterial Distensibility in Cameroonian Pygmies

  1. Philippe Van de Borne

  1. From the Hypertension Clinic (D.L., W.N., C.J., M.L., L.V.B., P.B., J.P.D., P.V.d.B.), Department of Cardiology, Université Libre de Bruxelles-Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Heymans Institute of Pharmacology (L.V.B.), Gend University, Gend, Belgium. Department of Pharmacology (P.B.), Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.
  1. Correspondence to Daniel Lemogoum, Hypertension Clinic, Department of Cardiology, Université Libre de Bruxelles-Erasme Hospital, 808, Lennik Rd 1070, Brussels, Belgium. E-mail Daniel.lemogoum@ereasme.ulb.ac.be

Abstract

We aimed to assess whether arterial distensibility estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) differs between Cameroon traditional pygmies (TPs) on hunter-gather subsistence mode, contemporary pygmies who migrated to semiurban area, and the Bantou farmers (BFs) sharing the same environment. For that purpose, we recorded carotid-femoral PWV (ComplioR) in age and sex carefully matched 20 TPs, 20 contemporary pygmies, and 22 BFs. Aortic AI corrected for heart rate and blood pressures were generated from pressure wave analysis (SphygmoCor). Lipid profile was determined in TP and BF participants. TPs were shorter (P=0.02) with lower body weight (P<0 .01="" and="" bfs.="" bfs="" but="" cholesterol="" comparison="" contemporary="" em="" had="" high-density="" higher="" in="" lipoprotein="" low-density="" lower="" pygmies="" style="border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; outline-style: none; padding: 0px; text-align: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;" than="" tps="" with="">P
<0 .01="" em="" m="" pwv="" s="" slower="" style="border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; outline-style: none; padding: 0px; text-align: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;" their="" was="">P=0.006) than that of contemporary pygmies (6.82±0.36 m/s) or BFs (6.93±0.29 m/s); however, after its adjustment for age, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, the difference was slightly attenuated (P=0.051). PWV adjusted for weight did not differ between groups (P=0.10). In the whole study population but not in TPs taken separately, multivariate regression analysis revealed that PWV was independently associated with mean arterial pressure, age, and TP status (P<0 .001="" age="" ai="" and="" aortic="" arterial="" as="" corrected="" determinants="" em="" emerged="" for="" heart="" height="" independent="" mean="" of="" pressure="" rate="" style="border: 0px; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-weight: inherit; line-height: inherit; margin: 0px; outline-style: none; padding: 0px; text-align: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;" whereas="">P<0 .001="" 3="" aging="" ai="" and="" aortic="" arterial="" associated="" at="" atherosclerosis="" attributed="" blood="" blunted="" by="" conclusion="" corrected="" did="" differ="" effects="" for="" function.="" groups.="" heart="" hunter-gather="" in="" is="" least="" lifestyle="" low="" lower="" not="" of="" on="" p="" partly="" pressures="" rate="" risk="" stiffness="" structure="" the="" to="" tp="" translated="" weight="" with="">

Une petite précision sur le sucre

Le sucre de canne de betterave bio complet blanc en sachet ou en morceaux est du saccharose c'est à dire un glucose attaché à un fructose.
Ce saccharose quelque soit le paquet l'étiquette ou tout autre attrape nigaud se sépare en glucose et en fructose. Le glucose fait sécréter de l'insuline qui envoie au foie le message de stocker en particulier le glucose non utilisé et le fructose qui vient de se former par la séparation des deux sucres sous l'effet de la digestion...
Qu'on se le dise.

Central obesity and full fat dairy

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2014/02/12/275376259/the-full-fat-paradox-whole-milk-may-keep-us-lean

mardi 16 décembre 2014

Where is fat?

http://www.nature.com/nrendo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nrendo.2014.219.html?WT.mc_id=TWT_NatureRevEndo

Appendix: keep it unless it is diseased

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-the-function-of-t/

Fructose versus Glucose in your brain

33.3 Insulin and Glucose Manipulations Affecting Mesolimbic and Prefrontal Circuits Underlying Wanting of High-reward Foods: Implications for Obesity
Kathleen Page
University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California

Background: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic resulting in part from the ubiquity of high-calorie foods and food images. In a series of studies, we have shown how metabolic signals such as glucose and insulin influence brain pathways that regulate the motivation to consume high-calorie foods.
Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with blood sampling we examined brain, hormonal and behavioral measures of appetite and food motivation in obese and lean volunteers: 1) under euglycemia vs mild hypoglycemia using a stepped hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp; 2) after an acute consumption of glucose or fructose alone; and 3) after glucose or fructose consumption in combination with exposure to high-calorie food cues.
Results: Mild hypoglycemia preferentially activated limbic-striatal brain regions in response to food cues to produce a greater desire for high-calorie foods. In contrast, euglycemia preferentially activated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an executive control region, and resulted in less interest in food stimuli. Higher circulating glucose levels predicted greater mPFC activation. The prefrontal cortex response was absent in obese individuals. Consumption of glucose, but not fructose, deactivated hypothalamic and striatal regions and increased satiety. In contrast, consumption of fructose compared to glucose resulted in greater food-cue reactivity in the nucleus accumbens and greater desire for food. Circulating levels of glucose and insulin were significantly higher after glucose vs. fructose consumption, and higher insulin levels predicted greater mPFC activation to food cues after glucose consumption.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a role for circulating glucose and insulin in modulating neural control over food motivation and suggest a loss of the glucose-linked restraining influence in obesity. Differential brain, hormonal and appetitive responses to fructose compared to glucose consumption may promote overeating behavior.

Disclosure: Nothing to Disclose.

dimanche 14 décembre 2014

Polyphenols in weight loss

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23922235/

Choose unfiltered olive oil

  • Clinical and Population Studies
  • National Cholesterol Awareness Month Article

Olive Oil Polyphenols Enhance High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Humans

A Randomized Controlled Trial

  1. Montserrat Fitó
+Author Affiliations
  1. From the Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, REGICOR Study Group, CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Nutrición y la Obesidad (CIBEROBN) (A.H., M.F., D.M.-A., A.G.-G., O.D.-G., S.M.-P., M.-I.C., M.F.), Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, REGICOR Study Group, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (I.S.), and Human Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences Research Group (R.d.l.T.), IMIM-Research Institute Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; Ph.D program of Food Sciences and Nutrition (A.H.) and Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy (R.M.), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Research Unit on Lipids and Atherosclerosis, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, IISPV, Universitat Rovira I Virgili and CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Reus, Spain (S.F.-C., U.C., R.S., A.P.); Ph.D program in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (M.F.); Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland (K.N.); German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIFE), Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Germany (H.-J.F.Z.); and Lipoprotein Metabolism Section, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A.T.R.).
  1. Correspondence to Montserrat Fitó, MD, PhD, Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Nutrición y la Obesidad (CIBEROBN), IMIM-Research Institute Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Carrer Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail mfito@imim.es

Abstract

Objective—Olive oil polyphenols have shown beneficial properties against cardiovascular risk factors. Their consumption has been associated with higher cholesterol content in high-density lipoproteins (HDL). However, data on polyphenol effects on HDL quality are scarce. We, therefore, assessed whether polyphenol-rich olive oil consumption could enhance the HDL main function, its cholesterol efflux capacity, and some of its quality-related properties, such HDL polyphenol content, size, and composition.
Approach and Results—A randomized, crossover, controlled trial with 47 healthy European male volunteers was performed. Participants ingested 25 mL/d of polyphenol-poor (2.7 mg/kg) or polyphenol-rich (366 mg/kg) raw olive oil in 3-week intervention periods, preceded by 2-week washout periods. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity significantly improved after polyphenol-rich intervention versus the polyphenol-poor one (+3.05% and −2.34%, respectively; P=0.042). Incorporation of olive oil polyphenol biological metabolites to HDL, as well as large HDL (HDL2) levels, was higher after the polyphenol-rich olive oil intervention, compared with the polyphenol-poor one. Small HDL (HDL3) levels decreased, the HDL core became triglyceride-poor, and HDL fluidity increased after the polyphenol-rich intervention.
Conclusions—Olive oil polyphenols promote the main HDL antiatherogenic function, its cholesterol efflux capacity. These polyphenols increased HDL size, promoted a greater HDL stability reflected as a triglyceride-poor core, and enhanced the HDL oxidative status, through an increase in the olive oil polyphenol metabolites content in the lipoprotein. Our results provide for the first time a first-level evidence of an enhancement in HDL function by polyphenol-rich olive oil.