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samedi 13 mai 2017

Salt and evolution of human diet: Paleo diet was a low salt diet

Paleo diet was a low salt diet 
http://www.atlantico.fr/decryptage/sante-nouvelles-etudes-suggerent-bonne-partie-que-pensions-savoir-sel-faux-guy-andre-pelouze-3047311.html

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/88532

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/salt-and-sodium/sodium-health-risks-and-disease/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cen.12225/abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517681/

The PURE study on salt:
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30467-6/abstract


Sources of sodium: it should be cut in agro-industry factories



Clinical Perspective

What Is New?

  • This study identifies the major sources of sodium in the diets of adults from 3 geographic regions in the United States.
  • The study shows that sodium added to food outside the home accounts for more than two-thirds of total sodium intake, whereas sodium added to food at the table and in home food preparation is a minor contributor to total sodium intake.
  • Study findings align with a 2010 Institute of Medicine recommendation for reduction of sodium in commercially processed foods as the primary strategy to reduce sodium intake in the United States.

What Are the Clinical Implications?

  • Commercially processed and restaurant foods should be the primary focus when educating patients on strategies for lowering sodium in the diet.
  • For packaged food products, the Nutrition Facts panel may be useful in identifying lower-sodium products.
  • When individuals eat outside the home, sodium content information for menu items should be requested and used as a guide in making food choices.
  • Limiting salt added to food at the table and in home food preparation should also be encouraged, but patients should be advised that changes in these behaviors alone may not be sufficient for achieving the recommended intake level.


Some temper this data and advise instead to continue adding salt for the good taste of food.
Several considerations must be kept in mind:
1/ athletes who lose salt during exercise
2/ coffee drinkers which lose water and salt 
About coffee, one can simplify the advice:
- caffeine is diuretic so add a glass of water for a small amount of caffeine
- instead of sugar, you can add some crystals of salt to your cup with the fat if you drink bullet coffee.



Bread, cheeses, and processed meats are the main sources of sodium.
Choose enriched potassium salts if you can't skip the salt.
But the best way is to eat leafy green veggies.

The advice of eating fruits like bananas or drinking fruit juice for their potassium content is typically the kind of advice which emanates from metabolically unaware cardiologists; if you want more potassium don't load you by the way with carbs...

There is a lot of confusion about the amount of salt that is Optimal for your health. This chart is useful to convert salt in sodium and sodium in salt.



1g of Salt is 0,4g of sodium
1g of Sodium is 2,5 g of Salt

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/65/2/692S.abstract

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