We demonstrate that women have lower muscle PTEN gene expression when compared to men, despite having higher adipose tissue mass. This is coupled with increased inactivation of PTEN protein.
PTEN is a dual protein and lipid phosphatase that interferes with the insulin-signaling pathway via its lipid phosphatase activity. PTEN itself can be inactivated by phosphorylation14, 15, 16, and this post-translational modification impact PTEN activity. PTEN can autoinhibit itself through S380-385 sites, whereby phosphorylation of S385 leads to the phosphorylation of S380 and Threonine sites, and binding of the COOH tail to the C2 and phosphatase domains, preventing the binding of PTEN to a complex of protein that drive its activity17."