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dimanche 11 janvier 2015

Vitamins K: the Rotterdam study

Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study

TABLE 2
Association of coronary events and all-cause mortality with intake of phylloquinone in 4807 Dutch men and women aged 55 y and over1
Energy-adjusted phylloquinone intake (μg/d)P for trend
<200 th="">200–278>278
n158816081611
Median intake, μg/d154.6236.5336.9
Nonfatal MI
    Person-years113231155611766
    Events, n485640
    RR, model 1211.19 (0.81, 1.75)0.86 (0.56, 1.30)0.44
    RR, model 2311.14 (0.77, 1.70)0.84 (0.54, 1.31)0.42
Incident CHD4
    Person-years113231155611766
    Events, n828170
    RR, model 111.01 (0.74, 1.38)0.89 (0.64, 1.22)0.45
    RR, model 211.00 (0.73, 1.37)0.89 (0.63, 1.25)0.48
CHD mortality5
    Person-years115021176411880
    Events, n363033
    RR, model 110.86 (0.53, 1.40)0.98 (0.67, 1.57)0.94
    RR, model 210.90 (0.55, 1.48)1.02 (0.61, 1.69)0.93
All-cause mortality
    Person-years115021176411880
    Events, n246240215
    RR, model 110.98 (0.82, 1.17)0.91 (0.75, 1.09)0.28
    RR, model 211.02 (0.85, 1.23)0.94 (0.77, 1.14)0.53
  • 1 RR obtained by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with 95% CI in parentheses and P for linear trend across the tertiles.
  • 2 Model includes age, gender, and total energy intake.
  • 3 Model includes age, gender, total energy intake, BMI, smoking status, pack-years of cigarette smoking, diabetes, education (3 categories), and intake of alcohol, SFA, PUFA, flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol), and calcium.
  • 4 CHD comprises fatal and nonfatal MI, sudden cardiac death, and other forms of acute and chronic ischemic heart disease (ICD-10 codes I20–I25 and I46).
  • 5 CHD events followed by death within 28 d after the onset of symptoms.





Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study

TABLE 3
Association of coronary events and all-cause mortality with intake of menaquinone in 4807 Dutch men and women aged 55 y and over1
Energy-adjusted menaquinone intake (μg/d)P for trend
<21 .6="" th="">21.6–32.7>32.7
n157816051624
Median intake, μg/d15.126.940.9
Nonfatal MI
    Person-years111811154911915
    Events, n515736
    RR, model 1211.15 (0.79, 1.69)0.74 (0.48, 1.14)0.18
    RR, model 2311.08 (0.73, 1.62)0.67 (0.41, 1.09)0.12
Incident CHD4
    Person-years113231155611766
    Events, n868958
    RR, model 111.05 (0.78, 1.42)0.71 (0.51, 1.00)0.048
    RR, model 210.96 (0.70, 1.31)0.59 (0.40, 0.86)0.007
CHD mortality5
    Person-years113561174712043
    Events, n413523
    RR, model 110.84 (0.54, 1.33)0.59 (0.35, 0.99)0.045
    RR, model 210.73 (0.45, 1.17)0.43 (0.24, 0.77)0.005
All-cause mortality
    Person-years113561174712043
    Events, n258248195
    RR, model 110.97 (0.82, 1.16)0.81 (0.67, 0.98)0.030
    RR, model 210.91 (0.75, 1.09)0.74 (0.59, 0.92)0.007
  • 1 RR obtained by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with 95% CI in parentheses and P for linear trend across the tertiles.
  • 2 Model includes age, gender, and total energy intake.
  • 3 Model includes age, gender, total energy intake, BMI, smoking status, pack-years of cigarette smoking, diabetes, education (3 categories), and intake of alcohol, SFA, PUFA, flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol), and calcium.
  • 4 CHD comprises fatal and nonfatal MI, sudden cardiac death, and other forms of acute and chronic ischemic heart disease (ICD-10 codes I20–I25 and I46).
  • 5 CHD events followed by death within 28 d after the onset of symptoms.







Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study

TABLE 4
Association of aortic calcification with intake of menaquinone in 4473 Dutch men and women aged 55 y and over,1, 2
Energy-adjusted menaquinone intake (μg/d)P for trend
<21 .6="" th="">21.6–32.7>32.7
n146814931512
Median intake, μg/d15.126.940.9
Moderate calcification
    Controls, n9169581000
    Cases, n454452453
    OR, model 1310.93 (0.79, 1.10)0.94 (0.80, 1.11)0.49
    OR, model 2410.91 (0.77, 1.09)0.93 (0.76, 1.12)0.45
Severe calcification
    Controls, n9169581000
    Cases, n988359
    OR, model 110.75 (0.54, 1.03)0.56 (0.39, 0.80)0.001
    OR, model 210.71 (0.50, 1.00)0.48 (0.32, 0.71)<0 .001="" td="">
  • 1 Aortic calcification was graded according to the length of the calcified area, i.e., no/mild (reference), ≤1 cm; moderate, >1 and <5 cm.="" cm="" p="" severe="">
  • 2 OR obtained by multivariate logistic regression, with 95% CI in parentheses and P for linear trend across the tertiles.
  • 3 Model includes age, gender, and total energy intake.
  • 4 Model includes age, gender, total energy intake, BMI, smoking status, pack-years of cigarette smoking, diabetes, education (3 categories), and intake of alcohol, SFA, PUFA, flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol), and calcium.

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