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vendredi 13 décembre 2013

Buying organic meat in order to diminish antibiotic resistance?

The threat is real.
Yes it is a good advice because we are in danger to fight resistant micro-organisms without drugs... We have  the opportunity to use less antibiotics both in humans and animals. The first step in humans is to reverse the present paradigm which is based on the false assumption that presence of micro-organisms in a fluid or a tissue means infection. In animals we see too frequently prescriptions for the whole farm instead of treatment of a specific animal, preventive treatments and still today antibiotic treatments to increase weight.



http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/

Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals

  1. Ramanan Laxminarayanb,e,j,1
  1. Contributed by Simon A. Levin, February 18, 2015 (sent for review November 21, 2014; reviewed by Delia Grace and Lance B. Price)

Significance

Antimicrobials are used in livestock production to maintain health and productivity. These practices contribute to the spread of drug-resistant pathogens in both livestock and humans, posing a significant public health threat. We present the first global map (228 countries) of antibiotic consumption in livestock and conservatively estimate the total consumption in 2010 at 63,151 tons. We project that antimicrobial consumption will rise by 67% by 2030, and nearly double in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This rise is likely to be driven by the growth in consumer demand for livestock products in middle-income countries and a shift to large-scale farms where antimicrobials are used routinely. Our findings call for initiatives to preserve antibiotic effectiveness while simultaneously ensuring food security in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

Abstract

Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg−1, 148 mg⋅kg−1, and 172 mg⋅kg−1 for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health.

Footnotes

  • Author contributions: T.P.V.B. and R.L. designed research; T.P.V.B., C.B., and A.T. performed research; C.B. and M.G. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; T.P.V.B. and A.T. analyzed data; and T.P.V.B., C.B., M.G., B.T.G., S.A.L., T.P.R., A.T., and R.L. wrote the paper.
  • Reviewers: D.G., International Livestock Research Institute; and L.B.P., Translational Genomics Research Institute.
  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.
  • This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1503141112/-/DCSupplemental.


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