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vendredi 15 février 2013

Industrial food products are sterile...

High temperatue cooking, very strong prtocols of sterilization are the basis of present industrial food production.
It seems that this aspect has been underestimated in the recent high prevalence of diabetes obesity and other chronic diseases.

Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences

  1. Jennifer J. Wernegreenw
  1. Edited by David M. Karl, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, and approved January 17, 2013 (received for review December 2, 2012)


In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal–bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Specifically, we highlight recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions: how have bacteria facilitated the origin and evolution of animals; how do animals and bacteria affect each other’s genomes; how does normal animal development depend on bacterial partners; how is homeostasis maintained between animals and their symbionts; and how can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of animal–bacterial interaction. As answers to these fundamental questions emerge, all biologists will be challenged to broaden their appreciation of these interactions and to include investigations of the relationships between and among bacteria and their animal partners as we seek a better understanding of the natural world.


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