Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Prevention strategies that can be implemented during adulthood have not been identified.
The objective was to determine whether habitual omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake is associated with the rate of increase of carotid intima-media thickness during adulthood in individuals with impaired fetal growth.
This was a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1573 adults in Finland. Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed in 2001 (at ages 24-39 y) and in 2007. Participants were categorized as having had impaired fetal growth (term birth with birth weight )
In multivariable models, the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness was inversely associated with dietary omega-3 fatty acids in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04). Similarly, serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were inversely associated with the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04) but were not noted in those with normal fetal growth (P = 0.94 and P = 0.26, respectively).
Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth.
PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53972. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053972. Epub 2013 Jan 16.
Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature.
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0 .05="" bmi="" in="" individuals="" with="">40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity.0>
Dysnutrition: une vision globale et évolutionniste de la nutrition humaine
A global and evolutionary approach of human diet
D'un point de vue évolutionniste l'alimentation des humains a connu depuis 100 ans des transformations inconnues pendant les millions d'années qui ont précédé notre ère. Ces transformations résultent de l'industrialisation et de l'utilisation de végétaux et d'animaux non sauvages profondément transformés pour en faire des produits alimentaires. Un grand nombre de ces produits ne sont adaptés ni à notre physiologie ni à notre génomique et produisent des pathologies chroniques même s'ils permettent un apport calorique stable voire excessif pour les pays industrialisés et émergents. Toute la problématique est là. Analyser comment ces transformations bouleversent nos régulations cérébrales et générales et entraînent l'obésité, le diabète, la majorité des cancers, l'athérome et les démences chez certains d'entre nous.